Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What is the reason women live longer than men in the present, تحاميل مهبلية and why does this benefit increase over time? The evidence is sketchy and we only have some solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors which all play a part in women’s longevity more than men, we don’t know what percentage each factor plays in.
We know that women are living longer than men, regardless of their weight. However this isn’t because of certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As we can see, every country is above the diagonal parity line ; it means that in all nations a newborn girl can expect to live longer than a new boy.1
This chart illustrates that, while there is a female advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia, women live 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less that half a year.
The advantage women had in life expectancy was smaller in the richer countries than it is today.
Let’s now look at the way that female advantages in life expectancy has changed over time. The next chart compares the life expectancy of males and females at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Women and men in America live longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very small however it increased dramatically in the past century.
Using the option ‘Change country from the chart, you will be able to determine if these two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.